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|Title:||Hedycarya (Monimiaceae) macrofossils and associated Planarpollenites pollen from the early Miocene of New Zealand|
|Citation:||American Journal of Botany, 2016; 103(5):938-956|
|Publisher:||Botanical Society of America|
|John G. Conran, Jennifer M. Bannister, Dallas C. Mildenhall and Daphne E. Lee|
|Abstract:||PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The history of the basal angiosperm family Monimiaceae is based largely on fossil wood and leaf and fl oral fossils of uncertain affinity. Fossilized leaves with a well-preserved cuticle and Hedycarya -like flowers, including one with in situ pollen tetrads and fruits from an early Miocene lacustrine diatomite deposit in southern New Zealand implies a long record for Hedycarya in New Zealand. The flowers contain pollen grains that are very similar to those of the modern New Zealand species Hedycarya arborea and the Australian H. angustifolia but are considerably smaller. METHODS: We undertook comparative studies of the leaf, flower and fruit morphology of the newly discovered macrofossils and compared the in situ pollen grains from the flower with dispersed pollen grains from extant species. KEY RESULTS: The leaves are referred to a new, extinct species, Hedycarya pluvisilva Bannister, Conran, Mildenh. & D.E.Lee, (Monimiaceae), and associated with fossilized Hedycarya -like flowers that include in situ pollen and an infructescence of three drupes from the same site. Phylogenetic analysis placed the fossil into Hedycarya , sister to H. angustifolia in a clade with H. arborea and Levieria acuminata. A new name, Planarpollenites fragilis Mildenh., is proposed for dispersed fossil pollen tetrads at the site and those associated with the fl ower. CONCLUSIONS: The fossils are similar to those of modern Australian and New Zealand Hedycarya species, suggesting that the genus and related taxa have been signifi cant components of the rainforests of Australia and the former Zealandian subcontinent for most of the Cenozoic.|
|Keywords:||Biogeography; fossil flowers; fossil fruit; fossil leaves; Hedycarya pluvisilva; in situ pollen; Miocene; Monimiaceae; New Zealand; Planarpollenites fragilis|
|Rights:||© 2016 Botanical Society of America|
|Appears in Collections:||Environment Institute publications|
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