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Type: Journal article
Title: Subjective hunger, gastric upset, and sleepiness in response to altered meal timing during simulated shiftwork
Author: Gupta, C.C.
Centofanti, S.
Dorrian, J.
Coates, A.M.
Stepien, J.M.
Kennaway, D.
Wittert, G.
Heilbronn, L.
Catcheside, P.
Noakes, M.
Coro, D.
Chandrakumar, D.
Banks, S.
Citation: Nutrients, 2019; 11(6):1-24
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 2019
ISSN: 2072-6643
Statement of
Charlotte C Gupta, Stephanie Centofanti, Jillian Dorrian , Alison M Coates, Jacqueline M Stepien, David Kennaway, Gary Wittert, Leonie Heilbronn, Peter Catcheside, Manny Noakes, Daniel Coro, Dilushi Chandrakumar and Siobhan Banks
Abstract: Shiftworkers report eating during the night when the body is primed to sleep. This study investigated the impact of altering food timing on subjective responses. Healthy participants (n = 44, 26 male, age Mean ± SD = 25.0 ± 2.9 years, BMI = 23.82 ± 2.59kg/m2) participated in a 7-day simulated shiftwork protocol. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three eating conditions. At 00:30, participants consumed a meal comprising 30% of 24 h energy intake (Meal condition; n = 14, 8 males), a snack comprising 10% of 24 h energy intake (Snack condition; n = 14; 8 males) or did not eat during the night (No Eating condition; n = 16, 10 males). Total 24 h individual energy intake and macronutrient content was constant across conditions. During the night, participants reported hunger, gut reaction, and sleepiness levels at 21:00, 23:30, 2:30, and 5:00. Mixed model analyses revealed that the snack condition reported significantly more hunger than the meal group (p < 0.001) with the no eating at night group reporting the greatest hunger (p < 0.001). There was no difference in desire to eat between meal and snack groups. Participants reported less sleepiness after the snack compared to after the meal (p < 0.001) or when not eating during the night (p < 0.001). Gastric upset did not differ between conditions. A snack during the nightshift could alleviate hunger during the nightshift without causing fullness or increased sleepiness.
Keywords: gastric upset; meal timing; nightshift; shiftwork; snack
Rights: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
RMID: 0030118106
DOI: 10.3390/nu11061352
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Appears in Collections:Medicine publications

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