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dc.contributor.authorReoch, J.R.-
dc.contributor.authorStokes, Y.M.-
dc.contributor.authorGreen, J.E.F.-
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Mathematical Biology, 2022; 84(5):31-1-31-42-
dc.description.abstractBiological tissues are composed of cells surrounded by the extracellularmatrix (ECM). The ECM can be thought of as a fibrous polymer network, acting as a natural scaffolding to provide mechanical support to the cells. Reciprocal mechanical and chemical interactions between the cells and theECMare crucial in regulating the development of tissues and maintaining their functionality. Hence, to maintain in vivo-like behaviour when cells are cultured in vitro, they are often seeded in a gel, which aims to mimic the ECM. In this paper, we present a mathematical model that incorporates cell-gel interactions together with osmotic pressure to study the mechanical behaviour of biological gels. In particular, we consider an experiment where cells are seeded within a gel, which gradually compacts due to forces exerted on it by the cells. Adopting a onedimensional Cartesian geometry for simplicity, we use a combination of analytical techniques and numerical simulations to investigate how cell traction forces interact with osmotic effects (which can lead to either gel swelling or contraction depending on the gel’s composition). Our results show that a number of qualitatively different behaviours are possible, depending on the composition of the gel (i.e. its chemical potentials) and the strength of the cell traction forces. A novel prediction of our model is that there are cases where the gel oscillates between swelling and contraction; to our knowledge, this behaviour has not been reported in experiments.We also consider how physical parameters like drag and viscosity affect the manner in which the gel evolves.-
dc.description.statementofresponsibilityJ. R. Reoch, Y. M. Stokes, J. E. F. Green-
dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLC-
dc.rights© The Author(s) 2022 This article is licensed under a CreativeCommonsAttribution 4.0 InternationalLicense,which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
dc.subjectMathematical model; Multiphase model; Gel; Osmosis; Fluid mechanics; Cell-extracellular matrix interactions; Tissue engineering-
dc.subject.meshExtracellular Matrix-
dc.subject.meshModels, Theoretical-
dc.titleA mathematical model for cell-induced gel contraction incorporating osmotic effects-
dc.typeJournal article-
dc.identifier.orcidStokes, Y.M. [0000-0003-0027-6077]-
dc.identifier.orcidGreen, J.E.F. [0000-0001-5061-9563]-
Appears in Collections:Mathematical Sciences publications

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