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dc.contributor.authorLosic, D.-
dc.contributor.authorFarivar, F.-
dc.contributor.authorYap, P.L.-
dc.contributor.authorTung, T.T.-
dc.contributor.authorNine, M.J.-
dc.identifier.citationScience of the Total Environment, 2022; 848:157743-1-157743-12-
dc.descriptionAvailable online 2 August 2022-
dc.description.abstractGraphene oxide (GO) has been recognized as a thermally unstable and energetic material, but surprisingly its environmental and safety risks were not fully explored, defined, and regulated. In this study, systematic explosivity and flammability characterizations of commercial GO materials were conducted to evaluate the influence of key parameters such as physical forms (paste, powders, films, and aerogels), temperature, heating rate, mass, and heating environment, as well as their potential safety and environmental impacts. Results based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that GO in paste and powder forms have lower temperature thresholds (>180-192 °C) to initiate micro-explosions compared to GO film and aerogels (> 205 °C and 213 °C) regardless of the environment (inert, air, or oxygen). The observed explosive behavior can be explained by thermal runaway reactions as a result of thermal deoxygenation and decomposition of oxygen functional groups. Flammability rating and limiting oxygen index (LOI) results confirmed that GO films are flammable materials that can spontaneously propagate flame in a low oxygen environment (~11 %). These results provided new insights about potential safety and environmental risks of GO materials, which somehow were not considered, suggesting urgent actions to improve current safety protocols for labeling, handling, transporting, and storage practices from manufacturers to the end-users.-
dc.description.statementofresponsibilityDusan Losic, Farzaneh Farivar, Pei Lay Yap, Tran Thanh Tung, Md Julker Nine-
dc.publisherElsevier BV-
dc.rights© 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.-
dc.subjectGraphene oxide-
dc.subjectGraphite oxide-
dc.subjectThermal decomposition-
dc.subjectSafety risks-
dc.titleNew insights on energetic properties of graphene oxide (GO) materials and their safety and environmental risks-
dc.typeJournal article-
dc.identifier.orcidLosic, D. [0000-0002-1930-072X]-
dc.identifier.orcidFarivar, F. [0000-0002-4829-1682]-
dc.identifier.orcidYap, P.L. [0000-0001-7346-8139]-
dc.identifier.orcidNine, M.J. [0000-0002-5740-8627]-
Appears in Collections:ARC Research Hub for Graphene Enabled Industry Transformation publications
Chemical Engineering publications

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