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Type: Journal article
Title: The place of detoxification in treatment of opioid dependence
Author: Gowing, L.
Ali, R.
Citation: Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 2006; 19(3):266-270
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Issue Date: 2006
ISSN: 0951-7367
Abstract: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes current research on the management of opioid withdrawal and considers the selection of the approach in different situations. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent publication of three controlled trials makes firm conclusions about the relative effectiveness of newer approaches (antagonist-induced withdrawal under anaesthesia or with minimal sedation; buprenorphine) to the management of opioid withdrawal possible. SUMMARY: Antagonist-induced withdrawal under anaesthesia should not be pursued as it has an increased risk of life-threatening adverse events and has no additional benefits relative to antagonist-induced withdrawal under minimal sedation. Antagonist-induced withdrawal with minimal sedation is feasible and may be suitable for those who intend to enter antagonist-maintenance treatment with a clear commitment to abstinence and good support. Buprenorphine is suitable for quick withdrawal, supports transition to naltrexone maintenance treatment, is safe and effective in outpatient settings and can be extended into maintenance treatment if the detoxification attempt is unsuccessful. Adrenergic agonists (clonidine and lofexidine) remain an effective option for those who do not want to use an opioid and do not intend to transfer to naltrexone maintenance treatment, with lofexidine being preferable for outpatient settings. Through appropriate choice of approach, detoxification can be a gateway to multiple, long-term treatment options.
Keywords: antagonist-induced withdrawal, buprenorphine, detoxification, opioid dependence
RMID: 0020060508
DOI: 10.1097/01.yco.0000218596.54054.a1
Appears in Collections:Pharmacology publications

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