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|Title:||Long-term aging of copper added to soils|
|Citation:||Environmental Science & Technology, 2006; 40(20):6310-6317|
|Publisher:||Amer Chemical Soc|
|Yibing Ma, Enzo Lombi, Ian W. Oliver, Annette L. Nolan, and Mike J. McLaughlin|
|Abstract:||Aging refers to the processes by which the mobility and bioavailability/toxicity of metals added to soil decline with time. Although long-term aging is a key process that needs to be considered in the risk assessment of metals in field soils, the long-term aging of Cu added to soils has not been studied in detail. In this study, the effects of aging on Cu isotopic exchangeability, total Cu in soil pore water, pore water free Cu2+ activity, and "available" Cu measured by the technique of diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT-Cu) were investigated in 19 European soils at two total Cu concentrations shown to inhibit plant (tomato) growth by 10 and 90%. After addition of Cu, the soils were leached, incubated outdoors, and sampled regularly over a 2-year period. The results showed that when water soluble Cu was added to soils, concentrations of Cu determined by each of the techniques tended to decrease rapidly initially, followed by further decreases at slow rates. Soil pH was a vital factor affecting the aging rate of Cu added to soils. The relatively low solubility products and low isotopic exchangeabilities of Cu in calcareous soils immediately after addition of soluble Cu2+ suggested Cu2+ probably precipitated in these soils as Cu2(OH)2CO3 (malachite) and Cu(OH)2. Isotopic dilution was found to be a robust technique for measuring rates of long-term aging reactions. A semi-mechanistic model was developed to describe the rate and extent of Cu aging across soils as affected by soil pH and other physicochemical parameters. Although not measured directly, it is inferred from soil physicochemical controls on Cu aging that processes of precipitation/nucleation of Cu in soils and hydrolysis of Cu2+ followed by a diffusion process controlled the decrease in Cu availability with time. The model was validated by testing it against field soils with different contamination histories and was found to successfully predict the isotopic exchangeability of Cu added to soils based on two parameters: soil pH and time.|
|Keywords:||Copper; Soil; Soil Pollutants; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Models, Theoretical; Time Factors|
|Description:||Copyright © 2006 American Chemical Society|
|Appears in Collections:||Earth and Environmental Sciences publications|
Environment Institute publications
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