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|Title:||Paramagnetic effects on solid state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of soil organic matter|
|Citation:||Journal of Environmental Quality, 2002; 31(2):414-420|
|Publisher:||Amer Soc Agronomy|
|Ronald J. Smernik and J. Malcolm Oades|
|Abstract:||Received for publication June 2, 2000. The effects of paramagnetic species on solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were quantified in a series of doping experiments. The degree of signal loss caused by paramagnetic metals was shown to depend not only on the quantity, but also on the nature of the paramagnetic species, as well as the intimacy of contact with the organic substrate and the type of NMR experiment. Two mechanisms of signal loss were distinguished—signal loss via loss of magnetic field homogeneity, which affects all 13C nuclei in a sample, and signal loss via interaction between electronic and nuclear spins, the effects of which were localized to the close environment of the paramagnetic species. Loss of field homogeneity is important for manganese species, but not for copper species, and is equally important for both cross polarization and Bloch decay experiments. The interaction between electronic and nuclear spins is highly dependent on the spin-lattice relaxation rate constant of the free electron (T1e), as cations with very short T1e values (e.g., Pr3+) cause less signal loss than cations with longer T1e values (e.g., Cu2+, Mn2+). Cross polarization spectra are shown to be more susceptible than Bloch decay spectra to this mechanism of signal loss. Signal loss and increased relaxation rates brought about by paramagnetic species can be used to provide information on soil organic matter (SOM) heterogeneity in the submicron range. This is demonstrated for SOM doped with paramagnetic cations where selective signal loss and increased relaxation rates are used to determine the nature of cation exchange sites.|
|Keywords:||Cations; Carbon Isotopes; Organic Chemicals; Soil Pollutants; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Environmental Monitoring; Ion Exchange; Magnetics|
|Description:||Copyright © 2002 American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America|
|Appears in Collections:||Soil and Land Systems publications|
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