Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/52644
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Type: Journal article
Title: Medial and Lateral Horns of the Lower Eyelid Retractors
Author: Kakizaki, H.
Malhotra, R.
Nakano, T.
Asamoto, K.
Lawrence-Watt, D.
Iwaki, M.
Selva-Nayagam, D.
Citation: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 2009; 25(1):10-12
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Issue Date: 2009
ISSN: 0740-9303
1537-2677
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Kakizaki Hirohiko, Malhotra Raman, Nakano Takashi, Asamoto Ken, Lawrence-Watt Diana J., Iwaki Masayoshi and Selva Dinesh
Abstract: Purpose: To reveal the medial and lateral horns of the lower eyelid retractors, measure the horn width, and examine the racial differences of the horns between white and Japanese cadaver specimens. Methods: Five lower eyelids of 3 white cadavers aged from 81 to 89 years at death and 7 lower eyelids of 5 Japanese cadavers aged from 66 to 85 years at death were studied. Results: All lower eyelid retractors in both races showed medial and lateral horns. The average width of the medial horns was 4.3 mm in whites and 4.2 mm in Japanese, and that of the lateral horns was 6.5 mm in whites and 6.2 mm in Japanese. The lateral horns were statistically larger than the medial horns irrespective of race. There were no statistical differences between the races. Conclusions: The lower eyelid retractors has medial and lateral horns, the latter of which is larger. They are analogous to those of the levator aponeurosis, but did not demonstrate racial differences with regard to horn width.
Keywords: Eyelids; Facial Muscles; Oculomotor Muscles; Humans; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Asian Continental Ancestry Group; European Continental Ancestry Group; Japan
Description: ©2009The American Society of Opthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inc.
RMID: 0020090109
DOI: 10.1097/IOP.0b013e318190f064
Appears in Collections:Opthalmology & Visual Sciences publications

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