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|Title:||Suppression of cytokine responses by indomethacin in podocytes: a mechanism through induction of unfolded protein response|
|Citation:||American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology, 2008; 295(5):F1495-F1503|
|Publisher:||American Physiological Society|
|Maro Okamura, Yosuke Takano, Nobuhiko Hiramatsu, Kunihiro Hayakawa, Jian Yao, Adrienne W. Paton, James C. Paton and Masanori Kitamura|
|Abstract:||We found that, in murine podocytes, expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in response to TNF-alpha was suppressed by indomethacin but not by ibuprofen. This anti-inflammatory potential was correlated with induction of 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), a marker of unfolded protein response (UPR). Indomethacin, but not ibuprofen, also triggered expression of CHOP, another endogenous indicator of UPR, as well as repression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-responsive alkaline phosphatase, an exogenous indicator of UPR. Like ibuprofen, other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin and sulindac also did not induce UPR, indicating that the induction of UPR by indomethacin was independent of cyclooxygenase inhibition. The induction of UPR by indomethacin was observed similarly in other cells including mesangial cells and tubular epithelial cells. In tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-treated cells, suppression of MCP-1 by indomethacin was inversely correlated with induction of UPR, and other inducers of UPR including tunicamycin, thapsigargin, and A23187 reproduced the suppressive effect. Reporter assays showed that indomethacin as well as thapsigargin attenuated activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha, and it was associated with enhanced degradation of TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) and blunted degradation of IkappaBbeta. Subsequent experiments revealed that acute ablation of GRP78 protein by AB5 subtilase cytotoxin caused reinforcement of MCP-1 induction and NF-kappaB activation by TNF-alpha and that transfection with GRP78 significantly suppressed the cytokine-induced activation of NF-kappaB. These results suggested that indomethacin suppressed the response of podocytes to TNF-alpha via UPR and that UPR-triggered induction of GRP78 and degradation of TRAF2 may be responsible, at least in part, for the suppressive effect of indomethacin.|
|Keywords:||monocyte chemoattractant protein 1; nuclear factor-B; tumor necrosis factor-; unfolded protein response; 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein|
|Rights:||Copyright © 2008 by the American Physiological Society.|
|Appears in Collections:||Molecular and Biomedical Science publications|
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