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|Title:||Whole bone geometry and bone quality in distal forearm fracture|
|Citation:||Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 2008; 22(8):S59-S65|
|Publisher:||Lippincott Williams & Wilkins|
|Ian H. Parkinson, Nicola L. Fazzalari|
|Abstract:||Fracture of the distal radius is a sentinel for future increased risk of other "osteoporotic" fractures, in which the peak age for incidence of distal radius fracture is 5 to 10 years before that for spine and hip fractures. Mean bone mineral density (BMD) of the distal radius was lower in patients with osteoporosis compared with age- and sex-matched normal subjects. However, it has been shown that to predict the strength of the distal radius at the site where fractures occur requires more than measurement of bone mineral content (BMC) or BMD. Only moderate correlations have been found between forearm sites, which may be a result of differences in bone composition between sites. Different forearm sites may be used interchangeably for diagnostic purposes, but the prognostic value is not known. Using the distal radius as a screening tool for identifying individuals at risk of "osteoporotic" fracture shows that forearm site selection and accuracy of measurement can be important confounders in group studies.Improving resolution of computed tomography (CT) scanners has enabled quantitation of cortical bone density and cortical thickness. These measurements have enabled the mechanism of bone loss in the distal radius to be elucidated and show that, after menopause, bone loss is primarily through thinning of the cortex. CT imaging allows the precise localization of bone changes in individuals and should be of value in the assessment of the severity of osteoporosis. It also shows that this technology has the potential to determine the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. A concerted effort has been made to elucidate the interrelationships between the amount of bone and the geometry and that clinical imaging of BMC and/or cross-sectional area in the radius would provide improved prediction of an individual's risk of fracture.The technological tools are available, in the clinic, to accurately measure the 3-dimensional (3D) geometry of the distal radius and the amount of bone. In addition, the cortical and cancellous bone compartments can be analyzed separately. This capability, along with the easy accessibility of the distal radius to clinical imaging modalities, provides an excellent framework for longitudinal prospective studies to determine morphologic risk factors for osteoporotic fractures of the distal radius.|
|Keywords:||radius; geometry; imaging; osteoporotic fracture|
|Appears in Collections:||Pathology publications|
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