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|Title:||Surfactant-enhanced release of carbaryl and ethion from two long-term contaminated soils|
|Citation:||Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B-pesticides Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes, 2004; 39(4):565-576|
|Publisher:||Marcel Dekker Inc|
|Riaz Ahmad, Rai S. Kookana and Angus M. Alston|
|Abstract:||The potential of five nonionic surfactants, Triton X-100, Brij35, Ethylan GE08, Ethylan CD127, and Ethylan CPG660 for enhancing release of carbaryl and ethion from two long-term contaminated soils was evaluated using the batch method. Incorporation of the surfactants into soils enhanced the release of both pesticides to various extents, which could be related to the type of pesticides and type and the amount of surfactants added. Release of ethion was dramatically enhanced by aqueous concentrations of surfactants above their critical micelle concentration values. This was attributed to solubility enhancement through incorporation of the highly hydrophobic compound within surfactant micelles. A concentration of 10 g L-1 of various surfactants released >70% of the total ethion from the soil irrespective of the surfactant. For carbaryl, the surfactants were effective at low concentrations and dependence on concentration was lower than in the case of ethion. The ethylan surfactants (GE08, CD127, and CPG660) had a higher potential than Triton X-100 and Brij35 for releasing the pesticides. However, there was still a significant portion of carbaryl (11% of the total) and ethion (17% of the total) left in the soil. Our study also showed that there must be an optimal concentration of each surfactant to maximize the mass transfer of pesticides. At some threshold concentration level, additional surfactant started to inhibit the mass transfer of solute from the soil into the water. The results suggested that surfactants could help remediation of soils polluted by pesticides. The choice of surfactant should be made based on the properties of pesticides.|
|Keywords:||Surfactants; Micelles; Pesticides; Release; Soil remediation|
|Description:||Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc.|
|Appears in Collections:||Soil and Land Systems publications|
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