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|Title:||Defensin promoters as potential tools for engineering disease resistance in cereal grains|
|Citation:||Plant Biotechnology Journal, 2010; 8(1):47-64|
|Publisher:||Blackwell Publishing Ltd.|
|Nataliya Kovalchuk, Ming Li, Finni Wittek, Nicolas Reid, Rohan Singh, Neil Shirley, Ainur Ismagul, Serik Eliby, Alex Johnson, Andrew S. Milligan, Maria Hrmova, Peter Langridge and Sergiy Lopato|
|Abstract:||Engineering of plant protection in cereals requires well characterized tissue-specific and wounding/pathogen-inducible promoters for targeted expression of pathogen responsive and resistance genes. We describe the isolation of seven wheat and rice defensin genes expressed in early developing grain and during grain germination, two developmental stages that are particularly vulnerable to pathogens and insects. Comparison of three-dimensional (3D) models of these rice and wheat PRPI defensins indicated variations in spatial architectures that could reflect their functional diversities. Wheat and rice were stably transformed with promoter-GUS fusion constructs and the spatial and temporal activities of four promoters were studied using whole-mount and histological assays. PRPI promoters were active before and at anthesis in both transgenic wheat and rice with activity mainly in the ovary. In rice, GUS activity was also observed in vascular tissue of the lemma, palea and anthers. After fertilization, GUS was strongly expressed in the outer cell layers of the pericarp and in the main vascular bundle of the grain. During, and a short time after, seed germination, wheat promoters were active in transgenic rice embryos, roots and/or coleoptiles. All wheat and rice promoters were strongly induced by wounding in leaf, stem and grain of transgenic rice plants. These results suggest that PRPI promoters will be useful for specific targeting and accumulation of proteins conferring resistance to pathogens in vulnerable tissues of developing and germinating grain.|
|Keywords:||wheat; rice; gametophyte; pericarp; defensin; promoter; wounding.|
|Rights:||© 2009 Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics (ACPFG)|
|Appears in Collections:||Agriculture, Food and Wine publications|
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