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Type: Journal article
Title: Anatomical relationships within the human pterygomandibular space: Relevance to local anesthesia
Author: Khoury, J.
Mihailidis, S.
Ghabriel, M.
Townsend, G.
Citation: Clinical Anatomy, 2010; 23(8):936-944
Publisher: Wiley-Liss
Issue Date: 2010
ISSN: 0897-3806
Statement of
Jason Khoury, Suzanna Mihailidis, Mounir Ghabriel, and Grant Townsend
Abstract: A thorough understanding of the anatomy of the pterygomandibular space is fundamental to the successful administration of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) blocks, which are frequently used in dentistry for mandibular anesthesia. However, the nature and extent of anatomical variations and relationships within this space are not well documented, and descriptions vary within the literature. This study analyzed the anatomical patterns and relationships of structures in the pterygomandibular space of 56 human cadaver hemi-heads, with both left and right sides from 10 individuals being available, and described the range of variability. In most cases, the IAN was anterior to the inferior alveolar vasculature with the inferior alveolar vein(s) being closest to the bone. On average, there were two veins per specimen. The position of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle expressed as the ratio of its distance from the anterior border of the ramus to the total anteroposterior length of the ramus was 0.60 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.07). The distance of anterior and medial displacement of the lingual nerve to the IAN was 7.3 mm (SD = 2.4 mm) and 3.9 mm (SD = 1.6 mm), respectively. The direct distance between the IAN and lingual nerve was 8.5 mm (SD = 2.4 mm). The sphenomandibular ligament always appeared dense and fibrous, medial to the neurovascular bundle. This anatomical study highlights the extent of variations in the positioning of anatomical structures directly relevant to IAN blocks, and reassesses the rationale for the direct approach, which is currently taught and practiced throughout many countries.
Keywords: inferior alveolar nerve block; mandibular anesthesia; inferior dental nerve
Rights: Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
RMID: 0020101523
DOI: 10.1002/ca.21047
Appears in Collections:Pathology publications

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