Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/86708
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Type: Journal article
Title: Intravenous butorphanol improves cardiopulmonary parameters in game-ranched white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) immobilized with etorphine and azaperone
Author: Boardman, W.
Caraguel, C.
Raath, J.
Van Zijll Langhout, M.
Citation: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2014; 50(4):849-857
Publisher: Wildlife Disease Association
Issue Date: 2014
ISSN: 0090-3558
1943-3700
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Wayne S. J. Boardman, Charles G. B. Caraguel, Jacobus P. Raath, and Martine Van Zijll Langhout
Abstract: Abstract We immobilized 47 white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) for dehorning with 1-4 mg of etorphine HCl, 10-40 mg of azaperone, and 7,500 IU of hyaluronidase, at a game ranch in South Africa in November 2012. Forty-four received butorphanol intravenously 5 min after recumbency, at the rate of 10 mg of butorphanol per 1 mg of etorphine, and three animals did not. When possible, blood gas and physiologic parameters were measured immediately before butorphanol administration and 10 min later. Statistically significant improvements were observed, with a reduction in pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, and with an increase in arterial partial pressure of oxygen, arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate in animals administered butorphanol. In the three animals that did not receive butorphanol, no improvement was apparent. Butorphanol given to recumbent white rhinoceroses immediately after immobilization was associated with improved blood gas values and cardiopulmonary function for at least 10 min. Studies on the sustainability of these effects are necessary.
Keywords: Blood gas values; Ceratotherium simum; butorphanol; etorphine; hypoxemia; immobilization; white rhinoceros
Rights: © Wildlife Disease Association 2014
RMID: 0030009617
DOI: 10.7589/2013-12-327
Appears in Collections:Animal and Veterinary Sciences publications

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