Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/97479
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Type: Journal article
Title: Identification of markers that functionally define a quiescent multiple myeloma cell sub-population surviving bortezomib treatment
Author: Adomako, A.
Calvo, V.
Biran, N.
Osman, K.
Chari, A.
Paton, J.
Paton, A.
Moore, K.
Schewe, D.
Aguirre-Ghiso, J.
Citation: BMC Cancer, 2015; 15(1):444-1-444-11
Publisher: BioMed Central
Issue Date: 2015
ISSN: 1471-2407
1471-2407
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Alfred Adomako, Veronica Calvo, Noa Biran, Keren Osman, Ajai Chari, James C Paton, Adrienne W Paton, Kateri Moore, Denis M Schewe, and Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso
Abstract: The mechanisms allowing residual multiple myeloma (MM) cells to persist after bortezomib (Bz) treatment remain unclear. We hypothesized that studying the biology of bortezomib-surviving cells may reveal markers to identify these cells and survival signals to target and kill residual MM cells.We used H2B-GFP label retention, biochemical tools and in vitro and in vivo experiments to characterize growth arrest and the unfolded protein responses in quiescent Bz-surviving cells. We also tested the effect of a demethylating agent, 5-Azacytidine, on Bz-induced quiescence and whether inhibiting the chaperone GRP78/BiP (henceforth GRP78) with a specific toxin induced apoptosis in Bz-surviving cells. Finally, we used MM patient samples to test whether GRP78 levels might associate with disease progression. Statistical analysis employed t-test and Mann-Whitney tests at a 95% confidence.We report that Bz-surviving MM cells in vitro and in vivo enter quiescence characterized by p21(CIP1) upregulation. Bz-surviving MM cells also downregulated CDK6, Ki67 and P-Rb. H2B-GFP label retention showed that Bz-surviving MM cells are either slow-cycling or deeply quiescent. The Bz-induced quiescence was stabilized by low dose (500nM) of 5-azacytidine (Aza) pre-treatment, which also potentiated the initial Bz-induced apoptosis. We also found that expression of GRP78, an unfolded protein response (UPR) survival factor, persisted in MM quiescent cells. Importantly, GRP78 downregulation using a specific SubAB bacterial toxin killed Bz-surviving MM cells. Finally, quantification of Grp78(high)/CD138+ MM cells from patients suggested that high levels correlated with progressive disease.We conclude that Bz-surviving MM cells display a GRP78(HIGH)/p21(HIGH)/CDK6(LOW)/P-Rb(LOW) profile, and these markers may identify quiescent MM cells capable of fueling recurrences. We further conclude that Aza + Bz treatment of MM may represent a novel strategy to delay recurrences by enhancing Bz-induced apoptosis and quiescence stability.
Keywords: Animals; Humans; Mice; Multiple Myeloma; Neoplasm Recurrence, Local; Azacitidine; Heat-Shock Proteins; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays; Apoptosis; Cell Survival; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic; Adult; Aged; Middle Aged; Female; Male; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6; p21-Activated Kinases; Bortezomib
Rights: © 2015 Adomako et al.; licensee BioMed Central. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
RMID: 0030030138
DOI: 10.1186/s12885-015-1460-1
Appears in Collections:Molecular and Biomedical Science publications

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